This topic provides you with the answers to commonly asked questions about Tanzu Build Service (commonly known as TBS).

How do Cloud Native Buildpacks (CNBs), kpack, and Tanzu Build Service overlap and differ?

CNBs are build tools that adhere to the CNB v3 Specification and transform source code into an OCI compliant runnable image. The v3 specification, lifecycle, and local CLI (pack) are governed by the open source Cloud Native Buildpacks project.

kpack is a collection of open source resource controllers that together function as a Kubernetes native build service. The product provides a declarative image type that builds an image and schedules image rebuilds when dependencies of the image change. kpack is a platform implementation of CNBs in that it utilizes CNBs and the v3 lifecycle to execute image builds.

Tanzu Build Service is a commercial product owned and operated by VMware that utilizes kpack and CNBs. Build Service provides additional abstractions intended to ease the use of the above technologies in Enterprise settings. These abstractions are covered in detail throughout the documentation on this site. Additionally, customers of Build Service are entitled to support and VMware Tanzu buildpacks.


Why do I see two images in the image registry after a successful build?

By default Build Service will tag each built image twice. The first tag is the configured image tag. The second tag is a unique tag with the build number and build timestamp. The second tag is added to ensure that previous images are not deleted on registries that garbage collect untagged images.


How does TBS work in air gapped environments?

Build Service is installed and deployed using Carvel tools. Therefore, the imgpkg copy command can create a .tar file composed of the Kubernetes config and images required to successfully install Build Service. The imgpkg copy command also ensures that all the images can be relocated to air-gapped registries. By providing the credentials to the air-gapped registry when executing the kapp install command, Build Service can then use that secret to pull images from the registry and so work in air-gapped environments.

Currently, kbld package and kbld unpackage must be used to import dependencies to an air-gapped environment.

For more details on air-gapped installation, see Installation to Air-Gapped Environment.

For more details on air-gapped builds, see Offline Builds.


Is there documentation on supported Tanzu Buildpacks?

Yes, documentation is available on Tanzu Buildpacks Documenation.


Why do I get an X509 error from Build Service when trying to create an image in my registry?

When interacting with a registry or a Git repo that has been deployed using a self-signed certificate, Build Service must be provided with the certificate during install time. You will either need to target a registry that does not have self-signed certificates or re-install Build Service to work with this registry.


How do I configure a secret to publish images to Dockerhub?

  1. Create a dockerhub secret with the kp cli:

    kp secret create my-dockerhub-creds --dockerhub DOCKERHUB-USERNAME
    

    Where DOCKERHUB-USERNAME is your dockerhub username. You will be prompted for your dockerhub password.


How can I configure an image resource to pull from a private GitHub repository?

  1. Create a github secret with the kp cli:

    Using a git ssh key

    kp secret create my-git-ssh-cred --git git@github.com --git-ssh-key PATH-TO-GITHUB-PRIVATE-KEY
    

    Where PATH-TO-GITHUB-PRIVATE-KEY is the absolute local path to the github ssh private key.

    Or with a basic auth github username and password.

    kp secret create my-git-cred --git https://github.com --git-user GITHUB-USERNAME
    

    Where GITHUB-USERNAME is your github username. You will be prompted for your github password.


Why do some builds fail with “Error: could not read run image: *”?

The run image must be publicly readable or readable with the registry credentials configured in a project/namespace.

To see where the build service run image is located, run: kp stack status STACK-NAME.

If you cannot make the run image publicly readable, you must kp to create a registry secret within the namespace where your builds reside. This can be accomplished by using kp secret create.


Why don’t my image builds appear in my Harbor v1.X.X registry?

There is a known bug in Harbor that, at times, prevents the UI from showing images. If you are unable to see a recently built image in the Harbor UI, try pulling it using the docker or crane CLI to verify that it exists.


How do I fix “unsupported status code 500” when creating a builder on my Harbor v2.X.X registry?

Some builders are very large and can overwhelm Harbor’s default database connection. You can remediate this issue by increasing the database.maxOpenConns setting in the helm values.yaml file. Increase this value from 100 to 300. The exact setting can be found in the harbor-helm values.yaml file on GitHub.


How do I configure credentials for using gcr as my installation registry?

You can use Google Container Registry for your Tanzu Build Service installation registry.

If you have trouble configuring the registry credentials for gcr when following the install docs, use the following to set the gcr credentials:

registry_name="_json_key"
registry_password="$(cat /path/to/gcp/service/account/key.json)"
ytt -f /tmp/bundle/config/ \
  -v kp_default_repository='<IMAGE-REPOSITORY>' \
  -v kp_default_repository_username='<REGISTRY-USERNAME>' \
  -v kp_default_repository_password='<REGISTRY-PASSWORD>' \
  --data-value-yaml pull_from_kp_default_repo=true \
  | kbld -f /tmp/bundle/.imgpkg/images.yml -f- \
  | kapp deploy -a tanzu-build-service -f- -y

Can I configure a proxy for my Tanzu Build Service?

TBS can be configured with a proxy at installation time by specifying additional parameters:

  • http_proxy: The HTTP proxy to use for network traffic.
  • https_proxy: The HTTPS proxy to use for network traffic.
  • no_proxy: A comma-separated list of hostnames, IP addresses, or IP ranges in CIDR format that should not use a proxy.

Note: When proxy server is enabled using http_proxy and/or https_proxy, traffic to the kubernetes API server will also flow through the proxy server. This is a known limitation and can be circumvented by using no_proxy to specify the kubernetes API server.

ytt -f /tmp/bundle/config/ \
  -v kp_default_repository='<IMAGE-REPOSITORY>' \
  -v kp_default_repository_username='<REGISTRY-USERNAME>' \
  -v kp_default_repository_password='<REGISTRY-PASSWORD>' \
  --data-value-yaml pull_from_kp_default_repo=true \
  -v http_proxy='<HTTP-PROXY-URL>' \
  -v https_proxy='<HTTPS-PROXY-URL>' \
  -v no_proxy='<KUBERNETES-API-SERVER-URL>' \
  | kbld -f /tmp/bundle/.imgpkg/images.yml -f- \
  | kapp deploy -a tanzu-build-service -f- -y

How do I build my app locally using kpack builders?

You can use the pack cli with your kpack builders to test them locally before checking in your code. By using your kpack builder locally, you can guarantee that the buildpacks, stacks, and lifecycle used to build the image config will also be used by the pack CLI, resulting in a container image that is the exact same, whether it is built by kpack or pack.

Note: Make sure that you docker login or crane auth login to the image repository containing your kpack builder.

pack build my-app --path ~/workspace/my-app --builder gcr.io/my-project/my-image:latest --trust-builder

What can I do with the kp –dry-run and –output flags?

From kp CLI v1.0.3+ the --dry-run and --output flags are made available to kp commands that create or update any kpack Kubernetes resources.

The --dry-run flag lets you perform a quick validation with no side-effects as no objects are sent to the server. And the --output flag lets you view the resource in yaml or json format.

The --dry-run-with-image-upload flag is similar to the --dry-run flag in that no kpack Kubernetes resources are updated. This flag is provided as a convenience for kp commands that can output Kubernetes resource with generated container image references.

For example, consider the command below

$ kp clusterstack create test-stack \
 --dry-run \
 --output yaml \
 --build-image gcr.io/paketo-buildpacks/build@sha256:f550ab24b72586cb26215817b874b9e9ec2ca615ede03206833286934779ab5d \
 --run-image gcr.io/paketo-buildpacks/run@sha256:21c1fb65033ae5a765a1fb44bfefdea37024ceac86ac6098202b891d27b8671f

Creating ClusterStack... (dry run)
Uploading to 'gcr.io/my-project/my-repo'... (dry run)
	Skipping 'gcr.io/my-project/my-repo/build@sha256:f550ab24b72586cb26215817b874b9e9ec2ca615ede03206833286934779ab5d'
	Skipping 'gcr.io/my-project/my-repo/run@sha256:21c1fb65033ae5a765a1fb44bfefdea37024ceac86ac6098202b891d27b8671f'
apiVersion: kpack.io/v1alpha1
kind: ClusterStack
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  name: test-stack
spec:
  buildImage:
    image: gcr.io/my-project/my-repo/build@sha256:f550ab24b72586cb26215817b874b9e9ec2ca615ede03206833286934779ab5d
  id: io.buildpacks.stacks.jammy
  runImage:
    image: gcr.io/my-project/my-repo/run@sha256:21c1fb65033ae5a765a1fb44bfefdea37024ceac86ac6098202b891d27b8671f
status:
  buildImage: {}
  runImage: {}

The resource yaml output above has the relocated build and run image urls. However, the images were never uploaded.

If you now apply the resource output using kubectl apply -f as shown below, then the resource will be created but will be faulty since the referenced images do not exist.

$ kp clusterstack create test-stack \
 --dry-run \
 --output yaml \
 --build-image gcr.io/paketo-buildpacks/build@sha256:f550ab24b72586cb26215817b874b9e9ec2ca615ede03206833286934779ab5d \
 --run-image gcr.io/paketo-buildpacks/run@sha256:21c1fb65033ae5a765a1fb44bfefdea37024ceac86ac6098202b891d27b8671f \
 | kubectl apply -f -
Creating ClusterStack... (dry run)
Uploading to 'gcr.io/my-project/my-repo'... (dry run)
	Skipping 'gcr.io/my-project/my-repo/build@sha256:f550ab24b72586cb26215817b874b9e9ec2ca615ede03206833286934779ab5d'
	Skipping 'gcr.io/my-project/my-repo/run@sha256:21c1fb65033ae5a765a1fb44bfefdea37024ceac86ac6098202b891d27b8671f'
clusterstack.kpack.io/test-stack created

Running the same command above with the --dry-run-with-image-upload flag (instead of --dry-run) ensures the created resource refers to images exist.

Does TBS support Azure Devops for git repositories

Yes! Azure DevOps Git is fully supported as of TBS 1.2

Why do I get a “repository does not exist” error when I use ECR Registry?

ECR is supported but requires manually creating each repository that TBS will use. With other registries, the repositories will be created automatically.

How do I troubleshoot a failed build?

Like many Kubernetes native products, operating TBS involves orchestrating resources that depend on each other to function. If a resource is in a “not ready” state it is likely that there is a problem with one of the resources it depends on.

If you are encountering a not ready Image, check and see which builder it uses and then check the status of that builder for additional information that could help you troubleshoot the problem.

$ kp image status <image-name>

$ kp clusterbuilder status <clusterbuilder-name>

Similarly, if a builder resource is in a “not ready” state, it is possible that there is a problem with the clusterstack or clusterstore resources it is referencing.

$ kp clusterstack status <clusterstack-name> --verbose

$ kp clusterstore status <clusterstore-name> --verbose

All Build Service concepts are also Kubernetes resources. Therefore, customers can interact with them using the kubectl CLI to see all the information that can be provided by the Kubernetes API.

$ kubectl describe image <image-name>

$ kubectl describe clusterbuilder <clusterbuilder-name>

How do I troubleshoot an UNAUTHENTICATED error?

During imgpkg copy

  1. Ensure you are logged in locally to both registries with:

    • If using the docker CLI, run:

      docker logout registry.tanzu.vmware.com && docker login registry.tanzu.vmware.com
      docker logout <tbs-registry> && docker login <tbs-registry>
      
    • If using the crane CLI, run:

      rm ~/.docker/config.json
      crane auth login <tbs-registry>
      crane auth login registry.tanzu.vmware.com
      
  2. On linux, if you have installed docker with snap you will need to copy /root/snap/docker/471/.docker/config.json to ~/.docker/config.json which is where imgpkg is looking for the docker credentials.

  3. Ensure your credentials have write access to your registry. This is the same repository used during installation with the ytt/kapp command.

    • For the docker CLI:

      docker push <tbs-registry>/<build-service-repository>
      
    • For the crane CLI:

      crane pull alpine alpine.tar && crane push alpine.tar <tbs-registry>/<build-service-repository>
      

During kp import

  1. Ensure you are logged in locally to both registries with:

    • If using the docker CLI, run:

      docker logout registry.tanzu.vmware.com && docker login registry.tanzu.vmware.com
      docker logout <tbs-registry> && docker login <tbs-registry>
      
    • If using the crane CLI, run:

      rm ~/.docker/config.json
      crane auth login <tbs-registry>
      crane auth login registry.tanzu.vmware.com
      
  2. Ensure the credentials used to install TBS have write access to your registry as they sometimes differ from local credentials:

    • Run docker login <tbs-registry> or crane auth login <tbs-registry> using the credentials used to install TBS with ytt/kapp.

    • Try to write to the image repository used during installation with the ytt/kapp command:

      • For the docker CLI:

        docker push <tbs-registry>/<build-service-repository>
        
      • For the crane CLI:

        crane pull alpine alpine.tar && crane push alpine.tar <tbs-registry>/<build-service-repository>
        

Why does Tanzu Build Service leave behind pods after builds on my Cluster?

All Tanzu Build Service builds happen in pods. By default, Tanzu Build Service does not delete the last ten successful and failed builds to provide historical logging and debugging.

If you want to change this behavior, update the number of stored build pods by configuring failedBuildHistoryLimit and successBuildHistoryLimit on the Image resource by using one of the following methods:

  • Using the kp CLI: Use the --failed-build-history-limit or --success-build-history-limit flags.
  • Using YAML: Apply YAML configurations using kubectl to update these fields.

For more information, see the kpack documentation.

How do I check what version of Tanzu Build Service I am using?

After installing Tanzu Build Service, in terminal run the command:

kubectl describe configMap build-service-version -n build-service

Under the data field, you will see the version of Tanzu Build Service you are currently using. For example:

    data:
      version: 1.3.0

How does TBS use windows-based images?

When running imgpkg copy, the command will output the following message:

Skipped layer due to it being non-distributable. If you would like to include non-distributable layers, use the --include-non-distributable flag

This is because TBS ships with windows images to support windows builds. Windows images contain “foreign layers” that are references to proprietary windows layers that cannot be distributed without proper Microsoft licensing.

By default, imgpkg will not relocate the proprietary windows layers to your registry. TBS also will not pull any windows layers to the cluster unless windows builds are being run so if you do not need windows this message can be ignored.

What is the relationship between a kpack image resource and an OCI image?

“Image resource” describes a kubernetes custom resource that produces OCI images by way of build resources. This resource will continue producing new builds that, when successful, output container images to the registry as configured by the image resource.

Build pods showing volume errors on EKS running Kubernetes 1.23

In Kubernetes 1.23 on EKS, the CSIMigrationAWS in this K8s version version means that users need to install the Amazon EBS CSI Driver in order to use the default storage class.

If you have no installed the CSI Driver, you may see the following error in build pods:

'running PreBind plugin "VolumeBinding": binding volumes: timed out waiting for the condition'

Why do some pods report “max depth exceeded”?

Some managed Kubernetes services use dockerd as the default container runtime. Dockerd has a known limitation, in which the maximum supported layer depth is 125. When an image’s layer depth exceeds 125, the docker runtime will report an error which reads, “max depth exceeded”.

This error can be avoided by configuring your cluster to use containerd or CRI-O as its default container runtime. Please refer to your Kubernetes cluster provider’s documentation for specific instructions.

AWS

  • https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/containers/amazon-eks-1-21-released/
  • https://eksctl.io/usage/container-runtime/

AKS

  • https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/aks/cluster-configuration#container-runtime-configuration
  • https://techcommunity.microsoft.com/t5/apps-on-azure-blog/dockershim-deprecation-and-aks/ba-p/3055902

GKE

  • https://cloud.google.com/kubernetes-engine/docs/concepts/using-containerd

OpenShift

  • https://cloud.redhat.com/blog/containerd-support-for-windows-containers-in-openshift
  • https://docs.openshift.com/container-platform/3.11/crio/crio_runtime.html

Using custom CA certificates at build time

If the ca_cert_data field is set during the installation of Tanzu Build Service, that certificate will be used to interact with the image registry.

Tanzu Build Service will also automatically insert this certificate into the system truststore during the build process.

Using custom CA certificates at run time

If your run image has been built with a builder that includes the Paketo CA Certificates Buildpack, you can provide a runtime binding of type: ca-certificates and it will be automatically added to the system truststore.

Note: This requires the language family buildpack used to include the Paketo CA Certificates Buildpack

For more information about using the buildpack, see VMware Tanzu Buildpacks documentation.

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