The Tanzu Node.js Buildpack supports several popular configurations for Node.js apps.

Specifying a Node Engine Version

The Node Engine Cloud Native Buildpack (CNB) allows you to specify a version of Node.js to use during deployment. This version can be specified in a number of ways, but you must choose a version that is available within the buildpack.

The buildpack prioritizes the versions specified in each possible configuration location with the following precedence, from highest to lowest: BP_NODE_VERSION, package.json, .nvmrc and .node-version.

Using BP_NODE_VERSION

To configure the buildpack to use Node.js v12.12.0 when deploying your app, set the following environment variable at build time, either directly (eg. spec.build.env on TAP) or through a project.toml file:

BP_NODE_VERSION="12.12.0"

Using package.json

If your apps use npm or yarn, you can specify the Node.js version your apps use during deployment by configuring the engines field in the package.json file. To configure the buildpack to use Node.js v12.12.0 when deploying your app, include the values below in your package.json file:

{
  "engines": {
    "node": "12.12.0"
  }
}

For more information about the engines configuration option in the package.json file, see the engines section of the npm-package.json topic in the NPM documentation.

Using .nvmrc

Node Version Manager is a common option for managing the Node.js version an app uses. To specify the Node.js version your apps use during deployment, include a .nvmrc file with the version number. For more information about the contents of a .nvmrc file, see .nvmrc in the Node Version Manager repository on GitHub.

Using .node-version

.node-version is another common option that is compatible with Node.js version managers such as asdf and nodenv. You can use a .node-version file to set the Node.js version that your apps use during deployment, according to one of the following formats:

12.12.0

OR

v12.12.0

OR

12.12

Enabling Heap Memory Optimization

Node.js limits the total size of all objects on the heap. Enabling the optimize-memory feature sets this value to three-quarters of the total memory available in the container. For example, if your app is limited to 1 GB when pushed, the heap of your Node.js app is limited to 768 MB.

To enable memory optimization, set BP_NODE_OPTIMIZE_MEMORY environment variable to true during build.

Specifying a Project Directory

To specify a subdirectory to be used as the root of the app, please use the BP_NODE_PROJECT_PATH environment variable at build time either directly or through a project.toml. This could be useful if your app is a part of a monorepo.

For example, if your project has the following structure:

.
├── go-app
│   ├── go.mod
│   └── main.go
└── node-app
    ├── file.js
    ├── index.js
    └── package.json

you could then set the following at build time.

$BP_NODE_PROJECT_PATH=node-app

Specifying Scripts to be Run

To specify scripts inside package.json you would like to execute, please use the BP_NODE_RUN_SCRIPTS environment variable at build time either directly or through a project.toml. The value of the variable should be a comma separated list of script names listed in the app's package.json

Package Management with NPM

Many Node.js apps require a number of third-party libraries to perform common tasks and behaviors. NPM is an option for managing these third-party dependencies that the Node.js CNB fully supports. Including a package.json file in your app source code triggers the NPM installation process. The sections below describe the NPM installation process run by the buildpack.

NPM Installation Process

NPM supports several distinct methods for installing your package dependencies. Specifically, the Node.js CNB runs either the npm install, npm rebuild, or npm ci commands to build your app with the right set of dependencies. When deciding which installation process to use, the Node.js CNB consults your app source code, looking for the presence of specific files or directories. The installation process used also determines how the Node.js CNB will reuse layers when rebuilding your app.

The table below shows the process the Node.js CNB uses to determine an installation process for NPM packages. When a combination of the files and directories listed in the table below are present in your app source code, the Node.js CNB uses an installation process that ensures the correct third-party dependencies are installed during the build process.

package-lock.json node_modules npm-cache Command
X X X npm install
X X npm install
X X npm rebuild
X npm rebuild
X X npm ci
X npm ci
X npm rebuild
npm ci

The following sections give more information about the files listed in the table above, including how to generate them, if desired.

package-lock.json

The package-lock.json file is generated by running npm install. For more information, see npm-package-lock.json in the NPM documentation.

node_modules

The node_modules directory contains vendored copies of all the packages installed by the npm install process. For more information, see the Node Modules section of the npm-folders topic in the NPM documentation.

npm-cache

The npm-cache directory contains a content-addressable cache that stores all HTTP-request- and package-related data. Additionally, including a cache ensures that the app can be built entirely offline.

To populate an npm-cache directory:

  1. Navigate to your source code directory.
  2. Run:
    npm ci --cache npm-cache
    

For more information about the NPM cache, see npm-cache in the NPM documentation.

Determining Node Modules Layer Reuse

To improve build times for apps, the Node.js CNB has a method for reusing the build results from previous builds. When the CNB determines that a portion of the build process can be reused from a previous build, the CNB uses the previous result. Each installation process uses a different method for determining whether the CNB can reuse a previous build result.

For npm install, the CNB never reuses a node_modules directory from previous builds.

For npm rebuild, the CNB can reuse a node_modules directory from a previous build if the included node_modules directory in the app source code has not changed since the prior build.

For npm ci, the CNB can reuse a node_modules directory from a previous build if the package-lock.json file included in the app source code has not changed since the prior build.

NPM Start Command

As part of the build process, the Node.js CNB determines a start command for your app. The start command differs depending on which package management tooling the Node.js CNB uses. If the Node.js CNB uses npm to install packages, the start command is npm start.

Package Management with Yarn

Many Node.js apps require a number of third-party libraries to perform common tasks and behaviors. Yarn is an alternative option to NPM for managing these third-party dependencies. Including package.json and yarn.lock files in your app source code triggers the Yarn installation process.

Yarn Installation Process

The Node.js CNB runs yarn install and yarn check to ensure that third-party dependencies are properly installed. The yarn.lock file contains a fully resolved set of package dependencies that Yarn manages. For more information, see yarn.lock in the Yarn documentation.

Yarn Start Command

As part of the build process, the Node.js CNB determines a start command for your app. The start command differs depending on which package management tooling the Node.js CNB uses. If the Node.js CNB uses yarn to install packages, the start command is yarn start.

Build an App Without Package Management

The Node.js buildpack supports building apps without node_modules or a package.json. It will detect this type of app automatically, by looking for one of these four files in the root of your application directory:

  • server.js
  • app.js
  • main.js
  • index.js

Specify A Custom Entrypoint

If your app's entrypoint file is not one of the four files named above, you can specify a different file name (or path) by setting the BP_LAUNCHPOINT environment variable at build time.

Using BP_LAUNCHPOINT

BP_LAUNCHPOINT can be set as follows:

BP_LAUNCHPOINT="./src/launchpoint.js"

The image produced by the build will run node src/launchpoint.js as its start command.

Build and Serve a Frontend Framework App

If you are using a framework that generates a static site from JavaScript source code (e.g. React, Vue, Angular), you can use the Tanzu Web Servers buildpack to build the static assets and automatically configure a web server.

Enable Process Reloading

By default, your Node.js server will be the only process running in your app container at runtime. You can enable restarting the server process when files in the app's working directory change, which may facilitate a shorter feedback loop for iterating on code changes.

Using BP_LIVE_RELOAD_ENABLED

To enable reloadable processes, set the $BP_LIVE_RELOAD_ENABLED environment variable at build time. For more details, see the Paketo documentation

Stack support

The Node.js Buildpack runs fine on the Base builder for most apps. If your app requires compilation of native extensions using node-gyp, the buildpack requires that you use the Full builder. This is because node-gyp requires python which is excluded from the the Base builder, and the module may require other shared objects.

Supported Service Bindings

The Node.js buildpack can be configured using service bindings.

type Required Files # Bindings of This Type Accepted
npmrc type, .npmrc 0 or 1
yarnrc type, .yarnrc 0 or 1

Apps that use NPM

Project-level .npmrc

Adding an .npmrc file in your app's working directory will allow you to provide project-level npm configuration.

Global .npmrc

Some users may prefer not to include an .npmrc file in their source code and app image (e.g. if an .npmrc contains credentials for connecting to a private registry). The .npmrc can be provided via a service binding whose type is npmrc. The binding must contain a file called .npmrc. The Node.js Buildpack will set this binding as the [NPM_CONFIG_GLOBALCONFIG][npmrc/precedence] in the build environment.

To pack build with the binding:

pack build myapp  --env SERVICE_BINDING_ROOT=/bindings --volume <absolute-path-to-binding-dir>:/bindings/npmrc

Apps that use Yarn

Project-level .yarnrc

Adding an .yarnrc file in your app's working directory will allow you to provide project-level yarn configuration.

User-level .yarnrc

Some users may prefer not to include an .yarnrc file in their source code and app image. The .yarnrc can be provided via a service binding whose type is yarnrc. The binding must contain a file called .yarnrc. The Node.js Buildpack will set this binding as the user-level .yarnrc in the build environment. It will not be present in the launch environment.

To pack build with the binding:

pack build myapp --env SERVICE_BINDING_ROOT=/bindings --volume <absolute-path-to-binding-dir>:/bindings/yarnrc

Additional Configuration

Install a Custom CA Certificate

Node.js buildpack users can provide their own CA certificates and have them included in the container root truststore at build-time and runtime by following the instructions outlined in the CA Certificates section of our configuration docs.

Override the Start Process Set by the Buildpack

Node.js buildpack users can set custom start processes for their app image by following the instructions in the Procfiles section of our configuration docs.

Set Environment Variables for App Launch Time

Node.js buildpack users can embed launch-time environment variables in their app image by following the documentation for the Environment Variables Buildpack.

Add Custom Labels to the App Image

Node.js buildpack users can add labels to their app image by following the instructions in the Applying Custom Labels section of our configuration docs.

Example App build

This section demonstrates building the Paketo NPM samples app on different platforms.

TAP

Check out the Paketo samples repository for an example NPM app that can be built by the Node.js buildpack.

  1. Create a workload.yaml.
---
apiVersion: carto.run/v1alpha1
kind: Workload
metadata:
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/part-of: npm-sample
    apps.tanzu.vmware.com/has-tests: "true"
    apps.tanzu.vmware.com/workload-type: web
  name: npm-sample
spec:
  params:
  - name: ports
    value:
    - port: 80
      containerPort: 8000
      name: http
  source:
    git:
      ref:
        branch: main
      url: https://github.com/paketo-buildpacks/samples
    subPath: nodejs/npm

where metadata.name is the application name the workload is a part of, and spec.source.git points to the remote source code.

  1. We'll now trigger an image build in the my-apps namespace by running:
tanzu apps workload apply --file workload.yaml --namespace my-apps
  1. You're done with build! You can view the result with:
tanzu apps workload get npm-sample --namespace my-apps

TBS

The Node.js buildpack is available in both the full and lite descriptors of TBS. Use kp image create to create an image resource. For more details, see Build Service Documentation

Pack

Please see the Readme page of Paketo NPM samples here to see intstructions on building the sample app using pack.

Buildpack-Set Environment Variables

The Node.js buildpack sets a number of environment variables during the build and launch phases of the app lifecycle. The sections below describe each environment variable and its impact on your app.

MEMORY_AVAILABLE

The MEMORY_AVAILABLE environment variable reports the total amount of memory available to the app. The Node.js CNB calculates this value from the $VCAP_APPLICATION settings or the limits specified by the operating system in /sys/fs/cgroup/memory/memory.limit_in_bytes.

  • Set by: profile.d
  • Phases: launch
  • Value: non-negative integer

NODE_ENV

The NODE_ENV environment variable specifies the environment in which the app runs.

  • Set by: node-engine buildpack
  • Phases: build
  • Value: production

NODE_HOME

The NODE_HOME environment variable sets the path to the node installation.

  • Set by: node-engine buildpack
  • Phases: build
  • Value: path to the node installation

NODE_VERBOSE

The NODE_VERBOSE environment variable adjusts the amount of logging output from NPM during installs.

  • Set by: node-engine buildpack
  • Phases: build
  • Value: false

NPM_CONFIG_LOGLEVEL

The NPM_CONFIG_LOGLEVEL environment variable adjusts the level of logging NPM uses.

  • Set by: npm-install buildpack
  • Phases: build
  • Value: "error"

NPM_CONFIG_PRODUCTION

The NPM_CONFIG_PRODUCTION environment variable installs only production dependencies if NPM install is used.

  • Set by: npm-install buildpack
  • Phases: build
  • Value: false

PATH

The node_modules/.bin directory is appended onto the PATH environment variable

  • Set by: yarn-install or npm-install buildpacks
  • Phases: build
  • Value: path to the node_modules/.bin directory
check-circle-line exclamation-circle-line close-line
Scroll to top icon