Network virtualization services include segments, gateways, firewalls, and other components of NSX-T.
- Segments (Logical Switch)
Reproduces switching functionality, broadcast, unknown unicast, and multicast (BUM) traffic in a virtual environment that is decoupled from the underlying hardware.
Segments are similar to VLANs because they provide network connections to which you can attach virtual machines. The virtual machines can then communicate with each other over tunnels between ESXi hosts. Each Segment has a virtual network identifier (VNI), like a VLAN ID. Unlike VLANs, VNIs scale beyond the limits of VLAN IDs.
- Gateway (Logical Router)
Provides North-South connectivity so that workloads can access external networks, and East-West connectivity between logical networks.
A Logical Router is a configured partition of a traditional network hardware router. It replicates the functionality of the hardware, creating multiple routing domains in a single router. Logical Routers perform a subset of the tasks that are handled by the physical router, and each can contain multiple routing instances and routing tables. Using logical routers can be an effective way to maximize router use, because a set of logical routers within a single physical router can perform the operations previously performed by several pieces of equipment.
Distributed router (DR)
A DR spans ESXi hosts whose virtual machines are connected to this gateway, and edge nodes the gateway is bound to. Functionally, the DR is responsible for one-hop distributed routing between segments and gateways connected to this gateway.
One or more (optional) service routers (SR).
An SR is responsible for delivering services that are not currently implemented in a distributed fashion, such as stateful NAT.
A gateway always has a DR. A gateway has SRs when it is a Tier-0 gateway, or when it is a Tier-1 gateway and has routing services configured such as NAT or DHCP.
- NSX-T Edge Node
Provides routing services and connectivity to networks that are external to the NSX-T domain through a Tier-0 gateway over BGP or static routing.
You must deploy an NSX-T Edge for stateful services at either the Tier-0 or Tier-1 gateways.
- NSX-T Edge Cluster
Represents a collection of NSX-T Edge nodes that host multiple service routers in highly available configurations. At a minimum, deploy a single Tier-0 SR to provide external connectivity.
An NSX-T Edge cluster does not have a one-to-one relationship with a vSphere cluster. A vSphere cluster can run multiple NSX-T Edge clusters.
- Transport Node
Participates in NSX-T overlay or NSX-T VLAN networking. If a node contains an NSX-T Virtual Distributed Switch (N-VDS) such as ESXi hosts and NSX-T Edge nodes, it can be a transport node.
If an ESXi host contains at least one N-VDS, it can be a transport node.
- Transport Zone
A transport zone can span one or more vSphere clusters. Transport zones dictate which ESXi hosts and which virtual machines can participate in the use of a particular network.
A transport zone defines a collection of ESXi hosts that can communicate with each other across a physical network infrastructure. This communication happens over one or more interfaces defined as Tunnel Endpoints (TEPs).
When you create an ESXi host transport node and then add the node to a transport zone, NSX-T installs an N-VDS on the host. For each transport zone that the host belongs to, a separate N-VDS is installed. The N-VDS is used for attaching virtual machines to NSX-T Segments and for creating NSX-T gateway uplinks and downlinks.
- NSX-T Controller
As a component of the control plane, the controllers control virtual networks and overlay transport tunnels.
For stability and reliability of data transport, NSX-T deploys the NSX-T Controller as a role in the Manager cluster which consists of three highly available virtual appliances. They are responsible for the programmatic deployment of virtual networks across the entire NSX-T architecture.
- Logical Firewall
Responsible for traffic handling in and out the network according to firewall rules.
A logical firewall offers multiple sets of configurable Layer 3 and Layer 2 rules. Layer 2 firewall rules are processed before Layer 3 rules. You can configure an exclusion list to exclude segments, logical ports, or groups from firewall enforcement.
The default rule, located at the bottom of the rule table, is a catch-all rule. The logical firewall enforces the default rule on packets that do not match other rules. After the host preparation operation, the default rule is set to the allow action. Change this default rule to a block action and enforce access control through a positive control model, that is, only traffic defined in a firewall rule can flow on the network.
- Logical Load Balancer
Provides high-availability service for applications and distributes the network traffic load among multiple servers.
The load balancer accepts TCP, UDP, HTTP, or HTTPS requests on the virtual IP address and determines which pool server to use.
Logical load balancer is supported only in an SR on the Tier-1 gateway.