Shared iPads for Business is a solution developed by Apple to enable users based on their Managed Apple IDs. Multiple users can check in and check out of the iPad. User's Managed Apple IDs are created in Apple Business Manager often through federation to a third-party Identity Provider such as Azure Active Directory.
As users log in with their Managed Apple ID, the managing MDM provider is notified of this change and can perform personalized actions to only show the resources needed by the targeted user.
When a user signs into an iPad, the user is automatically provisioned with a separate partition of the device's disk space. This ensures that the user's data is separated from all other users and data saved by the user is captured to their Managed Apple ID iCloud storage.