Strictly control access to different vCenter Server components to increase security for the system.
The following guidelines help ensure security of your environment.
Use Named Accounts
- If the local Windows administrator account currently has the Administrator role vCenter Server, remove that role and assign the role to one or more named vCenter Server administrator accounts. Grant the Administrator role only to those administrators who are required to have it. You can create custom roles or use the No cryptography administrator role for administrators with more limited privileges. Do not apply this role any group whose membership is not strictly controlled.
Note: Starting with vSphere 6.0, the local administrator no longer has full administrative rights to vCenter Server by default.
- Install vCenter Server using a service account instead of a Windows account. The service account must be an administrator on the local machine.
- Make sure that applications use unique service accounts when connecting to a vCenter Server system.
Monitor Privileges of vCenter Server Administrator Users
Not all administrator users must have the Administrator role. Instead, create a custom role with the appropriate set of privileges and assign it to other administrators.
Users with the vCenter Server Administrator role have privileges on all objects in the hierarchy. For example, by default the Administrator role allows users to interact with files and programs inside a virtual machine's guest operating system. Assigning that role to too many users can lessen virtual machine data confidentiality, availability, or integrity. Create a role that gives the administrators the privileges they need, but remove some of the virtual machine management privileges.
Do not allow users to log directly in to the vCenter Server host machine. Users who are logged in to the vCenter Server host machine can cause harm, either intentionally or unintentionally, by altering settings and modifying processes. Those users also have potential access to vCenter credentials, such as the SSL certificate. Allow only users who have legitimate tasks to perform to log in to the system and ensure that login events are audited.
Grant Minimal Privileges to vCenter Server Database Users
The database user requires only certain privileges specific to database access.
Some privileges are required only for installation and upgrade. You can remove these privileges from the database administrator after vCenter Server is installed or upgraded.
Restrict Datastore Browser Access
Assign the vSphere Web Client.privilege only to users or groups who really need those privileges. Users with the privilege can view, upload, or download files on datastores associated with the vSphere deployment through the Web browser or the
Restrict Users From Running Commands in a Virtual Machine
By default, a user with the vCenter Server Administrator role can interact with files and programs within a virtual machine's guest operating system. To reduce the risk of breaching guest confidentiality, availability, or integrity, create a custom nonguest access role without the Guest Operations privilege. See Restrict Users From Running Commands Within a Virtual Machine.
Consider Modifying the Password Policy for vpxuser
Check Privileges After vCenter Server Restart
Check for privilege reassignment when you restart vCenter Server. If the user or group that has the Administrator role on the root folder cannot be validated during a restart, the role is removed from that user or group. In its place, vCenter Server grants the Administrator role to the vCenter Single Sign-On administrator, email@example.com by default. This account can then act as the vCenter Server administrator.
Reestablish a named administrator account and assign the Administrator role to that account to avoid using the anonymous vCenter Single Sign-On administrator account (firstname.lastname@example.org by default).
Use High RDP Encryption Levels
On each Windows computer in the infrastructure, ensure that Remote Desktop Host Configuration settings are set to ensure the highest level of encryption appropriate for your environment.
Verify vSphere Web Client Certificates
Instruct users of one of the vSphere Web Client or other client applications to never ignore certificate verification warnings. Without certificate verification, the user might be subject of a MiTM attack.