You can backup and restore Tanzu Kubernetes cluster workloads using standalone Velero and Restic. This method is an alternative to using the Velero Plugin for vSphere. The primary reason for using standalone Velero instead of the Velero Plugin for vSphere is if you require portability. Restic is required for stateful workloads.

Prerequisites

To backup and restore Tanzu Kubernetes clusters workloads using standalone Velero and Restic, you must install the standalone version of Velero and Restic on the target cluster. See Install and Configure Standalone Velero and Restic on a Tanzu Kubernetes Cluster.
Note: Backing up and restoring a Kubernetes cluster using standalone Velero with Restic gives you portability. This means if you want to be able to restore cluster workloads to a Kubernetes cluster not provisioned by Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Service, you need to use standalone Velero.

Backup a Stateless Application Running on a Tanzu Kubernetes Cluster

Backing up a stateless application running on a Tanzu Kubernetes cluster requires the use of Velero.

This example shows how to backup and restore an example stateless application using the --include namespaces tag where all application components are in that namespace.
velero backup create example-backup --include-namespaces example-backup
You should see the following:
Backup request "example-backup" submitted successfully.
Run `velero backup describe example-backup` or `velero backup logs example-backup` for more details.
Verify the backup that was created.
velero backup get
velero backup describe example-backup

Check the Velero bucket on the S3-compatible object store such as the MinIO server.

Velero writes some metadata in Kubernetes custom resource definitions (CRDs).
kubectl get crd
The Velero CRDs let you run certain commands, such as the following:
kubectl get backups.velero.io -n velero
kubectl describe backups.velero.io guestbook-backup -n velero

Restore a Stateless Application Running on a Tanzu Kubernetes Cluster

Restoring a stateless application running on a Tanzu Kubernetes cluster requires the use of Velero.

To test the restoration of an example application, delete it.

Delete the namespace:
kubectl delete ns guestbook
namespace "guestbook" deleted
Restore the app:
velero restore create --from-backup example-backup
You should see the following:
Restore request "example-backup-20200721145620" submitted successfully.
Run `velero restore describe example-backup-20200721145620` or `velero restore logs example-backup-20200721145620` for more details.
Verify that the app is restored:
velero restore describe example-backup-20200721145620
Run the following commands to verify:
velero restore get
kubectl get ns
kubectl get pod -n example
kubectl get svc -n example

Backup a Stateful Application Running on a Tanzu Kubernetes Cluster

Backing up a stateful application running on a Tanzu Kubernetes cluster involves backing up both the application metadata and the application data stored on a persistent volume. To do this you need both Velero and Restic.

For this example we are going to use the Guestbook application. If is assumed that you have deployed the Guestbook application to a Tanzu Kubernetes cluster. See Tanzu Kubernetes Guestbook Tutorial for guidance.

So that we can demonstrate stateful backup and restore, submit some message to the Guestbook application using the frontend web page so that the messages are persisted. For example:

This example shows how to backup and restore the Guestbook app using the --include namespace tag as well as pod annotations.
Note: This example uses annotations. However, annotations are no longer needed for Velero version 1.5 and later. To not use annotations, you can use the --default-volumes-to-restic option when creating the backup. This will automatically backup all PVs using Restic. See https://velero.io/docs/v1.5/restic/ for more information.
To begin the backup procedure, get the names of the pods:
kubectl get pod -n guestbook
For example:
kubectl get pod -n guestbook

NAME                                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
guestbook-frontend-deployment-85595f5bf9-h8cff  1/1     Running            0          55m
guestbook-frontend-deployment-85595f5bf9-lw6tg  1/1     Running            0          55m
guestbook-frontend-deployment-85595f5bf9-wpqc8  1/1     Running            0          55m
redis-leader-deployment-64fb8775bf-kbs6s        1/1     Running            0          55m
redis-follower-deployment-84cd76b975-jrn8v      1/1     Running            0          55m
redis-follower-deployment-69df9b5688-zml4f      1/1     Running            0          55m

The persistent volumes are attached to the Redis pods. Because we are backing up these stateful pods with Restic, we need to add annotations to the stateful pods with the volumeMount name.

You need to know the volumeMount to annotate the stateful pod. To get the mountName, run the following command.
kubectl describe pod redis-leader-deployment-64fb8775bf-kbs6s -n guestbook

In the results you see Containers.leader.Mounts: /data from redis-leader-data. This last token is the volumeMount name to use for the leader pod annotation. For the follower it will be redis-follower-data. You can also obtain the volumeMount name from the source YAML.

Annotate each of the Redis pods, for example:
kubectl -n guestbook annotate pod redis-leader-64fb8775bf-kbs6s backup.velero.io/backup-volumes=redis-leader-data
You should see the following:
pod/redis-leader-64fb8775bf-kbs6s annotated
Verify the annotations:
kubectl -n guestbook describe pod redis-leader-64fb8775bf-kbs6s | grep Annotations
Annotations:  backup.velero.io/backup-volumes: redis-leader-data
kubectl -n guestbook describe pod redis-follower-779b6d8f79-5dphr | grep Annotations
Annotations:  backup.velero.io/backup-volumes: redis-follower-data
Perform the Velero backup:
velero backup create guestbook-backup --include-namespaces guestbook
You should see the following:
Backup request "guestbook-backup" submitted successfully.
Run `velero backup describe guestbook-pv-backup` or `velero backup logs guestbook-pv-backup` for more details.
Verify the backup that was created.
velero backup get

NAME                  STATUS      ERRORS   WARNINGS   CREATED                         EXPIRES   STORAGE LOCATION   SELECTOR
guestbook-backup      Completed   0        0          2020-07-23 16:13:46 -0700 PDT   29d       default            <none>
Verify backup details.
velero backup describe guestbook-backup --details
Note that Velero lets you run other commands, such as:
kubectl get backups.velero.io -n velero

NAME               AGE
guestbook-backup   4m58s
And:
kubectl describe backups.velero.io guestbook-backup -n velero

Restore a Stateful Application Running on a Tanzu Kubernetes Cluster

Restoring a stateful application running on a Tanzu Kubernetes cluster involves restoring both the application metadata and the application data stored to a persistent volume. To do this you need both Velero and Restic.

This example assumes that you backed up the stateful Guestbook application as described in the previous section.

To test the restoration of the stateful application, delete its namespace:
kubectl delete ns guestbook
namespace "guestbook" deleted
Verify application deletion:
kubectl get ns
kubectl get pvc,pv --all-namespaces
Restore the application:
Restore request "guestbook-backup-20200723161841" submitted successfully.
Run `velero restore describe guestbook-backup-20200723161841` or `velero restore logs guestbook-backup-20200723161841` for more details.
Verify that the stateful Guestbook application is restored:
velero restore describe guestbook-backup-20200723161841

Name:         guestbook-backup-20200723161841
Namespace:    velero
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>

Phase:  Completed

Backup:  guestbook-backup

Namespaces:
  Included:  all namespaces found in the backup
  Excluded:  <none>

Resources:
  Included:        *
  Excluded:        nodes, events, events.events.k8s.io, backups.velero.io, restores.velero.io, resticrepositories.velero.io
  Cluster-scoped:  auto

Namespace mappings:  <none>

Label selector:  <none>

Restore PVs:  auto

Restic Restores (specify --details for more information):
  Completed:  3
Run the following additional command to verify restoration:
velero restore get

NAME                                 BACKUP                STATUS      ERRORS   WARNINGS   CREATED                         SELECTOR
guestbook-backup-20200723161841      guestbook-backup      Completed   0        0          2021-08-11 16:18:41 -0700 PDT   <none>
Check that the namespace is restored:
kubectl get ns

NAME              STATUS   AGE
default           Active   16d
guestbook         Active   76s
...
velero            Active   2d2h
Check that the application is restored:
vkubectl get all -n guestbook

NAME                                READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/frontend-6cb7f8bd65-h2pnb       1/1     Running   0          6m27s
pod/frontend-6cb7f8bd65-kwlpr       1/1     Running   0          6m27s
pod/frontend-6cb7f8bd65-snwl4       1/1     Running   0          6m27s
pod/redis-leader-64fb8775bf-kbs6s   1/1     Running   0          6m28s
pod/redis-follower-779b6d8f79-5dphr 1/1     Running   0          6m28s
pod/redis-follower-899c7e2z65-8apnk 1/1     Running   0          6m28s

NAME                                 TYPE           CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP     PORT(S)        AGE
service/guestbook-frontend           LoadBalancer   10.10.89.59      10.19.15.99     80:31513/TCP   65s
service/redis-follower               ClusterIP      10.111.163.189   <none>          6379/TCP       65s
service/redis-leader                 ClusterIP      10.111.70.189    <none>          6379/TCP       65s

NAME                                            READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
deployment.apps/guestbook-frontend-deployment   3/3     3            3           65s
deployment.apps/redis-follower-deployment       1/2     2            1           65s
deployment.apps/redis-leader-deployment         1/1     1            1           65s

NAME                                                       DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
replicaset.apps/guestbook-frontend-deployment-56fc5b6b47   3         3         3       65s
replicaset.apps/redis-follower-deployment-6fc9cf5759       2         2         1       65s
replicaset.apps/redis-leader-deployment-7d89bbdbcf         1         1         1       65s
Check that the persistent volumes are restored:
kubectl get pvc,pv -n guestbook

NAME                                       STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
persistentvolumeclaim/redis-leader-claim   Bound    pvc-a2f6e6d4-42db-4fb8-a198-5379a2552509   2Gi        RWO            thin-disk      2m40s
persistentvolumeclaim/redis-follower-claim Bound    pvc-55591938-921f-452a-b418-2cc680c0560b   2Gi        RWO            thin-disk      2m40s

NAME                                                        CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM                             STORAGECLASS   REASON   AGE
persistentvolume/pvc-55591938-921f-452a-b418-2cc680c0560b   2Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    guestbook/redis-follower-claim    thin-disk               2m40s
persistentvolume/pvc-a2f6e6d4-42db-4fb8-a198-5379a2552509   2Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    guestbook/redis-leader-claim      thin-disk               2m40s

Lastly, access the Guestbook frontend using the external IP of the guestbook-frontend service and verify that the messages you submitted at the beginning of the tutorial are restored. For example: