Describes Greenplum Database events that are logged and should be monitored to detect security threats.

Greenplum Database is capable of auditing a variety of events, including startup and shutdown of the system, segment database failures, SQL statements that result in an error, and all connection attempts and disconnections. Greenplum Database also logs SQL statements and information regarding SQL statements, and can be configured in a variety of ways to record audit information with more or less detail. The log_error_verbosity configuration parameter controls the amount of detail written in the server log for each message that is logged.  Similarly, the log_min_error_statement parameter allows administrators to configure the level of detail recorded specifically for SQL statements, and the log_statement parameter determines the kind of SQL statements that are audited. Greenplum Database records the username for all auditable events, when the event is initiated by a subject outside the Greenplum Database.

Greenplum Database prevents unauthorized modification and deletion of audit records by only allowing administrators with an appropriate role to perform any operations on log files.  Logs are stored in a proprietary format using comma-separated values (CSV).  Each segment and the coordinator stores its own log files, although these can be accessed remotely by an administrator.  Greenplum Database also authorizes overwriting of old log files via the log_truncate_on_rotation parameter.  This is a local parameter and must be set on each segment and coordinator configuration file.

Greenplum provides an administrative schema called gp_toolkit that you can use to query log files, as well as system catalogs and operating environment for system status information. For more information, including usage, refer to The gp_tookit Administrative Schema appendix in the Greenplum Database Reference Guide.

Greenplum Database includes the PostgreSQL Audit Extension, or pgaudit, which provides detailed session and object audit logging via the standard logging facility provided by PostgreSQL. The goal of PostgreSQL Audit is to provide the tools needed to produce audit logs required to pass certain government, financial, or ISO certification audits.

Viewing the Database Server Log Files

Every database instance in Greenplum Database (coordinator and segments) is a running PostgreSQL database server with its own server log file. Daily log files are created in the log directory of the coordinator and each segment data directory.

The server log files are written in comma-separated values (CSV) format. Not all log entries will have values for all of the log fields. For example, only log entries associated with a query worker process will have the slice_id populated. Related log entries of a particular query can be identified by its session identifier (gp_session_id) and command identifier (gp_command_count).

# Field Name Data Type Description
1 event_time timestamp with time zone Time that the log entry was written to the log
2 user_name varchar(100) The database user name
3 database_name varchar(100) The database name
4 process_id varchar(10) The system process id (prefixed with "p")
5 thread_id varchar(50) The thread count (prefixed with "th")
6 remote_host varchar(100) On the coordinator, the hostname/address of the client machine. On the segment, the hostname/address of the coordinator.
7 remote_port varchar(10) The segment or coordinator port number
8 session_start_time timestamp with time zone Time session connection was opened
9 transaction_id int Top-level transaction ID on the coordinator. This ID is the parent of any subtransactions.
10 gp_session_id text Session identifier number (prefixed with "con")
11 gp_command_count text The command number within a session (prefixed with "cmd")
12 gp_segment text The segment content identifier (prefixed with "seg" for primaries or "mir" for mirrors). The coordinator always has a content id of -1.
13 slice_id text The slice id (portion of the query plan being run)
14 distr_tranx_id text Distributed transaction ID
15 local_tranx_id text Local transaction ID
16 sub_tranx_id text Subtransaction ID
17 event_severity varchar(10) Values include: LOG, ERROR, FATAL, PANIC, DEBUG1, DEBUG2
18 sql_state_code varchar(10) SQL state code associated with the log message
19 event_message text Log or error message text
20 event_detail text Detail message text associated with an error or warning message
21 event_hint text Hint message text associated with an error or warning message
22 internal_query text The internally-generated query text
23 internal_query_pos int The cursor index into the internally-generated query text
24 event_context text The context in which this message gets generated
25 debug_query_string text User-supplied query string with full detail for debugging. This string can be modified for internal use.
26 error_cursor_pos int The cursor index into the query string
27 func_name text The function in which this message is generated
28 file_name text The internal code file where the message originated
29 file_line int The line of the code file where the message originated
30 stack_trace text Stack trace text associated with this message

Greenplum provides a utility called gplogfilter that can be used to search through a Greenplum Database log file for entries matching the specified criteria. By default, this utility searches through the Greenplum coordinator log file in the default logging location. For example, to display the last three lines of the coordinator log file:

$ gplogfilter -n 3

You can also use gplogfilter to search through all segment log files at once by running it through the gpssh utility. For example, to display the last three lines of each segment log file:

$ gpssh -f seg_host_file
  => source /usr/local/greenplum-db/
  => gplogfilter -n 3 /data*/*/gp*/pg_log/gpdb*.csv

The following are the Greenplum security-related audit (or logging) server configuration parameters that are set in the postgresql.conf configuration file:

Field Name Value Range Default Description
log_connections Boolean off This outputs a line to the server log detailing each successful connection. Some client programs, like psql, attempt to connect twice while determining if a password is required, so duplicate “connection received” messages do not always indicate a problem.
log_disconnections Boolean off This outputs a line in the server log at termination of a client session, and includes the duration of the session.
log_statement NONE
ALL Controls which SQL statements are logged. DDL logs all data definition commands like CREATE, ALTER, and DROP commands. MOD logs all DDL statements, plus INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, TRUNCATE, and COPY FROM. PREPARE and EXPLAIN ANALYZE statements are also logged if their contained command is of an appropriate type.
log_hostname Boolean off By default, connection log messages only show the IP address of the connecting host. Turning on this option causes logging of the host name as well. Note that depending on your host name resolution setup this might impose a non-negligible performance penalty.
log_duration Boolean off Causes the duration of every completed statement which satisfies log_statement to be logged.
log_error_verbosity TERSE
DEFAULT Controls the amount of detail written in the server log for each message that is logged.
log_min_duration_statement number of milliseconds, 0, -1 -1 Logs the statement and its duration on a single log line if its duration is greater than or equal to the specified number of milliseconds. Setting this to 0 will print all statements and their durations. -1 deactivates the feature. For example, if you set it to 250 then all SQL statements that run 250ms or longer will be logged. Enabling this option can be useful in tracking down unoptimized queries in your applications.
log_min_messages DEBUG5
NOTICE Controls which message levels are written to the server log. Each level includes all the levels that follow it. The later the level, the fewer messages are sent to the log.
log_rotation_size 0 - INT_MAX/1024 kilobytes 1048576 When greater than 0, a new log file is created when this number of kilobytes have been written to the log. Set to zero to deactivate size-based creation of new log files.
log_rotation_age Any valid time expression (number and unit) 1d Determines the lifetime of an individual log file. When this amount of time has elapsed since the current log file was created, a new log file will be created. Set to zero to deactivate time-based creation of new log files.
log_statement_stats Boolean off For each query, write total performance statistics of the query parser, planner, and executor to the server log. This is a crude profiling instrument.
log_truncate_on_rotation Boolean off Truncates (overwrites), rather than appends to, any existing log file of the same name. Truncation will occur only when a new file is being opened due to time-based rotation. For example, using this setting in combination with a log_filename such as gpseg#-%H.log would result in generating twenty-four hourly log files and then cyclically overwriting them. When off, pre-existing files will be appended to in all cases.

Parent topic: Greenplum Database Security Configuration Guide

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